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Oct 29, 2014

UN Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories



From the UN Special Committee on Decolonization: A depiction from 1945 showing areas that needed to be decolonized and be enabled towards self-determination. Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands are both shown along with all of Polynesia, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Its a huge mistake to think that non-self-governing territories were simply "colonies". Territories, nations, national groups, and peoples were added to the list of non-self-governing territories by the General Assembly not the colonial or governing power itself nor by the Security Council . Indonesia was already declared itself independent in 1945 and was recognized as such by Japan but due to Dutch aggression to reclaim Indonesia, the General Assembly of the United Nations added Indonesia to its list. In 1945, the general understanding was that any distinct peoples and countries that was detached from its administrating or "metropolitan" power and was being prevented from exercising full self-determination (including by force as the Dutch were doing in Indonesia) or had questionable relations with a distant foreign power (as in the case of Sarawak, which was a recognized independent kingdom but ruled by a British national under a protectorate type relationship) was a non-self-governing territory. That also included Malaysia, Sarawak, and North Borneo (Sabah) which all still had precolonial political structures intact but they all were likewise included on the list of non-self-governing territories.

The Baltic Republics were not added because the Baltic countries still had recognized governments in exile, foreign embassies and formal diplomatic ties with countries throughout their occupation. When the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics annexed the Baltic Republics, most of Europe and Asia--some 70 countries in total--protested annexation and refused to cut political ties--something that did not happen in Hawai'i's case where all of Hawaiian Kingdom's treaties with foreign powers were superseded by US treaties in 1900 sadly due to the international recognition of the Republic of Hawai'i that came as a result of two events: the inauguration of a constitution in 1894 and the Republic's suppression of the 1895 Hawaiian nationalist uprising. It also should be noted that Hawai'i was added as a non-self-governing-territory (NST) not by the US but the United Nations General Aseembly (GA). The GA is the only authority that can add or remove NST and not the United Nations Security Council.  A recent example is the re-enlistment of French Polynesia as a NST by the GA over the objections of France, which has a seat on the Security Council.

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(http://www.un.org/en/decolonization/nonselfgov.shtml)

This is the entire list in 1945: 

Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945-1999)

The following Territories have been subject to United Nations Trusteeship Agreements or were listed by the General Assembly as Non-Self-Governing. Dates show the year of independence or other change in a Territory's status, after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations. 

- Administering States -


Administering Power/ Authority
Territory
Status
Year
Australia
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Change in Status
1984
Papua
Independence as Papua New Guinea
1975
Nauru
Trust Territory
Independence
1968
New Guinea
Trust Territory
Independence as Papua New Guinea
1975
Belgium
Belgian Congo
Independence as Congo Leopoldville, then Zaire
Now Democratic Republic of the Congo
1960
Ruanda-Urundi
Trust Territory
Independence as Burundi
1962
Independence as Rwanda
1962
Denmark
Greenland
Change in Status
1954
France
French Equatorial Africa
Independence as Chad
1960
Independence as Gabon
1960
(Middle Congo)
Independence as Congo (Brazzaville)
Now Republic of the Congo
1960
(Ubangi Shari)
Independence as Central African Republic
1960
French Establishments in India
Change in Status
1947
French Establishments in Oceania
Change in Status
1947
French Guiana
Change in Status
1947
French Somaliland
Independence as Djibouti
1977
French West Africa
Independence as Dahomey
Now Benin
1960
(French Guinea)
Independence as Guinea
1958
(French Sudan)
Independence as Mali
1960
Independence as Ivory Coast
1960
Independence as Mauritania
1960
(Niger Colony)
Independence as Niger
1960
Independence as Senegal
1960
Independence as Upper Volta
Now Burkina-Faso
1960
Guadeloupe and Dependencies
Change in Status
1947
Indo-China
Independence as Cambodia
1953
Independence as Laos
1949
Independence as Viet Nam
1945
Madagascar and Dependencies
Independence as Madagascar
1960
Independence as Comoros
1975
Martinique
Change in Status
1947
Morocco
Independence
1956
New Caledonia 1 and Dependencies
Change in Status
1947
New Hebrides
(Under Anglo-French Condominium)
Independence as Vanuatu
1980
Reunion
Change in Status
1947
St. Pierre and Miquelon
Change in Status
1947
Tunisia
Independence
1956
Cameroons
Trust Territory
Independence as Cameroon
1960
French Togoland
Trust Territory
Independence as Togo
1960
Italy
Somaliland
Trust Territory
Independence as Somalia (joined with British Somaliland)
1960
Netherlands
Netherlands Indies
Independence as Indonesia
1949
Netherlands New Guinea
Joined with Indonesia as Irian Jaya
1963
Netherlands Antilles
Change in Status
1951
Surinam
Change in Status
1951
Independence as Suriname
1975
New Zealand
Cook Islands
Change in Status
1965
Niue Island
Change in Status
1974
Western Samoa
Trust Territory
Independence as Samoa
1962
Portugal
Angola, including the enclave of Cabinda
Independence
1975
Cape Verde Archipelago
Independence as Cape Verde
1975
Goa and Dependencies
Change in Status
1961
Portuguese Guinea
Independence as
Guinea Bissau
1974
Macau and Dependencies
Change in Status
1972
Mozambique
Independence
1975
Sao Joمo Batista de Ajuda
Change in Status
1961
Sao Tome and Principe
Independence
1975
East Timor 2
Independence as Timor Leste
2002
South Africa
South West Africa
General Assembly terminated South Africa’s mandate
1966
Independence as Namibia
1990
Spain
Fernando Póo and Rí Muni
Independence as Equatorial Guinea
1968
Ifni
Change in Status
1969
United Kingdom
Aden Colony and Protectorate
Independence as South Yemen
1967
Bahamas
Independence
1973
Barbados
Independence
1966
Basutoland
Independence as Lesotho
1966
Bechuanaland Protectorate
Independence as Botswana
1966
British Guiana
Independence as Guyana
1966
British Honduras
Independence as Belize
1981
British Somaliland
Independence as Somalia (joined with Italian Somaliland)
1960
Brunei
Independence
Now Brunei Darussalam
1984
Cyprus
Independence
1960
Fiji
Independence
1970
Gambia
Independence as The Gambia
1965
Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony
Independence as Kiribati
1979
Independence as Tuvalu
1978
Gold Coast Colony and Protectorate
Independence as Ghana
1957
Hong Kong
Change in Status
1972
Jamaica
Independence
1962
Kenya
Independence
1963
Leeward Islands
(Antigua)
Independence as Antigua
and Barbuda
1981
(St. Kitts- Nevis-Anguilla)
Independence as St. Kitts and Nevis (separated from Anguilla)
1983
Malayan Union
Independence as Federation of Malaya
Now Malaysia [3]
1957
Malta
Independence
1964
Mauritius
Independence
1968
Nigeria
Independence
1960
North Borneo 3
Change in status
1963
Northern Rhodesia
Independence as Zambia
1964
Nyasaland
Independence as Malawi
1964
Sarawak 3
Change in status
1963
Seychelles
Independence
1976
Sierra Leone
Independence
1961
Singapore 3
Independence
1965
Solomon Islands
Independence
1978
Southern Rhodesia
Independence as Zimbabwe
1980
Swaziland
Independence
1968
Trinidad and Tobago
Independence
1962
Uganda
Independence
1962
Windward Islands
(Dominica)
Independence as Dominica
1978
(Grenada)
Independence as Grenada
1974
(St. Lucia)
Independence as St. Lucia
1979
(St. Vincent)
Independence as St. Vincent and the Grenadines
1979
Zanzibar
Independence 4 as United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Now Republic of Tanzania
1963
Cameroons
Trust Territory
Northern Cameroons joined with Nigeria
1961
Southern Cameroons joined with Cameroon
1961
Togoland
Trust Territory
Joined Gold Coast to form Ghana
1957
Tanganyka
Trust Territory
Independence 3 as United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar after joining
with Zanzibar
Now Republic of Tanzania
1963
United States
Alaska
Change in Status
1959
Hawaii
Change in Status
1959
Panama Canal Zone
Change in Status
1947
Change in Status
1952
Pacific Islands
Trust Territory
Change in Status as Federated Sates of Micronesia
1990
Change in Status as Republic of the Marshall Island
1990
Change in Status as Northern Mariana Islands
1990
Change in Status as Palau
1994

Notes:
1. In 1986 the General Assembly determined that New Caledonia was a Non-Self-Governing Territory.

2. Initially administered by Portugal. Under Indonesian control between 1975 and 1999. East Timor attained independence in May 2002 and joined the United Nations in September 2002 as Timor Leste.

3. In 1963, the Federation of Malaya became Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became independent 1965.

4. Following the ratification in 1964 of Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was formed and later changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania.

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