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Oct 29, 2014

On the term "Haole".

Many people have grown up to believe that the term haole comes from: hā (breath) ʻole (without). To add confusion to that even some Native Hawaiians have accepted this and in the wikipedia entry also mentions this. But it is an incorrect and superficial rendering of the word. The word "haole" does not mean "without breath". Any one who is familiar with the Hawaiian language, Hawaiian grammar and basic Austronesian linguistics knows that that word can not be broken apart in that way linguistically because 'ole can not made ro create an elison (slurred with the preceding word). 'Ole consists of four letters (' + o + l + e), begins with a consonant (') and the stress is on the 'o. Pau'ole (end-less) for example is never pronounced as "Paule" by manaleo or native speakers of Hawaiian. Without getting heavy into piliʻōlelo (Hawaiian grammar), elisons in Hawaiian are only created by two vowels and mostly occurs when a preceding definite article (ka/ke/nā) is followed by a noun that begins with a or e.


In addition, traditional Hawaiian mele and mo'olelo never use that term in the context of being "breathless" nor as a marker of race, "mana" or religious practice. It actually had no racial connotations prior to the 1840s. The idea of race itself was not within the traditional Hawaiian way of thinking which emphasizes genealogical kinship particularly to the land. Nor did it have any negative connotations until the 1860s when Henry Whitney, founder of the Commercial Advertiser (today's Honolulu Star Advertiser) complained about assertive Hawaiian newspapers like the "Ka Hoku Pakipika" because of their nationalistic content and his newspaper was beginning to lose subscribers. It is also interesting to note that "Ka Hoku Pakipika" preferred to not to use word "haole" and instead used the terms kōlea and malihini to describe specific actions that foreigners were doing towards Native Hawaiian culture and language. In fact, the first major complaint about "racism" was not from Native Hawaiians but were directed to Native Hawaiians and specifically against King Kalākaua himself by members of the "Missionary Party" because originally the king had wanted to take two Native Hawaiian cabinet members on his world tour in 1881. This allegation would be used against him throughout his reign because the king had a habit of trying to appoint cabinets composed of 50% Native Hawaiians and he tried to bring Chinese and Japanese into his Privy Council of State. Previously, cabinets were primarily composed of non-Native Hawaiian. Asians were almost absent from the government, though many were becoming naturalized by the 1870s. It was at that time that the term "haole" acquired its modern negative and racial connotations by Native Hawaiians and Asians due to politics of the time. Before that, historically and in Hawaiian mythology, it existed but had nothing to do with race but was merely a trait or a classification of peoples who one does not share an immediate (meaning eight generations or less) genealogical connection to or speaks an unfamiliar language. In other words, something (yes, it can be used to describe an object) or someone "different" than yourself, uncommon in Hawai'i, or originating outside of Hawai'i.  It was not a racial term.

The Kumulipo, for example, uses the word "haole" no less than seven times in describing peoples born of different traits. Kamapuaʻa is actually described as being haole because of his bright brown eyes and in some accounts, his ʻehu complexion and hair (reddish-brown). In other words, a physical trait. There are a number of name chants that use the term "haole" to describe either traits or peoples who speak language that could not be understood. For example, in the 600 line mele honoring Kuali'i, one of the greatest O'ahu kings and who unfortunately does not even have a school named after him, there is an account of Kuali'i's voyage to strange lands:


"O Kahiki, ia wai Kahiki? Ia Ku!

(Kahiki, to whom belongs Kahiki? To Ku!)

O Kahiki, moku kai a loa, Kahiki,
(island far out in the ocean,)
Aina o Olopana i noho ai.
(Land where Olopana dwelt.)
Iloko ka moku, iwaho ka la.
(Inside is the island, outside is the sun.)
O ke aloalo ka—la, ka moku, ke hiki mai.
(In that land the sun hangs low in the sky.)
Ane ua ike oe? Ua ike.
(Perhaps you have seen it,)
Ua ike hoi au ia Kahiki.
(I have indeed seen Kahiki.)
He moku leo pahaohao wale Kahiki.
(An island with weird unearthly voices is Kahiki)
No Kahiki kanaka i pii a luna.
(Of Kahiki are the men who ascend up.)
A i ka iwi kuamoo o ka lani;
(To the backbone of the sky.)
A luna, keehi iho,
(Up there they tread,)
Nana iho ia lalo.
And look down below)
Aohe o Kahiki kanaka;
(No human beings in Kahiki.)
Hookahi o Kahiki kanaka, he Haole
(One kind of men in Kahiki, the haole)
Me ia la he akua, me au la he kanaka.
(He is [acts] like a god, I like a man)
He kanaka no.
(A man indeed.)

The translation is from Dr. Curtis Lyons as published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society in 1893 and as recorded by Judge Abraham Fornander. In this case the term haole is being used to describe people who do not speak the same language as you do. "Me ia la he akua, me au la he kanaka" also alludes to the fact that the people of that place do not seem to have the same kapu. In fact, that is another connotation of the word from other mele inoa---people who do not have the same cultural norms because they do not share the same language and if they do not share the same language, then there is a question of kinship. This idea linking language and kinship is deeply embedded within many Polynesian and Pacific cultures. It also should be noted that some imply that this particular section is talking about Kuali'i's travels to Tahiti, the Marquesas, and the Americas because of the use of nautical terminology (iwi kuamoo o ka lani, etc) and the phrase "leo pahaohao". The term "leo pahaohao" is also a phrase used in some Hawaiian newspaper accounts to describe the language Captain Cook and later the missionaries spoke or sounded like to Native Hawaiians of that era. In fact, in many of the mo'olelo and mele, speaking in a different language and the word haole are normally in the same context. In the Kamapua'a epic, the word is used to describe how different his eyes, hair color, and skin tone were from other people. Again, nothing to do with race, hā or mana. A more accurate translation of the term "haole" therefore might be "someone or something that is different or has different traits than one's own". 

I personally think that one of the reasons why the missionaries were called "haole" had nothing to do with the way they prayed (as the urban legend goes) or they being "breath less" but due to historical and mythological references associating the term "haole" with those who speak a foreign language or "leo pahaohao" as the mele inoa of Kuali'i does. Native Hawaiians did not make the term "haole" into negative racial slur. It was actually the descendants of American missionaries who first began to turn "haole" into a pejorative term because of politics. The concept of "race" as we know it today did not exist in the Hawaiian world view 200 years ago. The word "haole" is some ways is similar to the word "Kanaka" (which in Hawaiian meant "person") which had no negative meanings but became in many contexts a pejorative term used by newcomers to describe Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in general. Unfortunately, due to the historical events (i.e. 1893), misinformation, and the way people used both "haole" and "kanaka", both terms became like niho ʻawa (poisonous fangs). Today, Native Hawaiians have reclaimed "Kanaka" in the context of "Kanaka Maoli" and "kanaka" no longer carries the stigma that it did in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Perhaps its also time to re-evaluate the term "haole" in its proper context and should not be used in negatively. Racism should have no place in anyone's heart and is a poison. At the same time, one should understand context and history why for example certain terms became used in the way that they continue to be used and why such divisions were created in the first place.

Concepts in Hawaiian Succession

Many people nowadays think that simply because they are somehow related to Kamehameha, that is sufficient to claim the Hawaiian Throne or to think of themselves a royal. That is absolutely not true either in the traditional Hawaiian sense nor in the Hawaiian Kingdom's constitutional framework. In the West, lines of succession went from father to eldest son. That's because Western countries adopted ideas about succession from Christianity, which in turn adopted patriarchal ideas from Judaism and from Roman civil law. Hawaiian society was not patriarchal. All of the early Western and Hawaiian accounts agree that the mother's genealogy was of more importance than the father's genealogy. Women's ranks were fixed and in the age where women could have many husbands, paternity could be difficult to establish. Normally, the woman's highest ranking male husband could claim any of her children as his own. If a husband wanted to ensure that a child would be his, he would negotiate a schedule with the wahine and would have to pay an uku or tax to each of her other husbands and/or sometimes to her parents. Kamehameha had such an arrangement with Keopuolani. The same process would also be true of a woman who wanted to ensure that her children were of a particular father. A person's social standing within Hawaiian society depended on the rank of the mother. The rank of the mother served as the baseline in traditional Hawaiian society because no one could question maternity. The first source of mana always derived from women. titles could be inherited from the mother, but titles from the father side were more difficult to inherit. A person could improve his/her social rank through: having children of higher rank (hānau akua); through conquest (kūnaʻina); through acclamation (ololani); revolution (including usurping the throne); and, through deification (hoʻākua). Kūaliʻi for example was acclaimed as ruler of O'ahu by the 'Aha 'Ula who was struggling with a people's rebellion and civil war between the Lono and Kū line of chiefs, though Kūaliʻi came from a junior line of chiefs. 'Umi-a-Liloa was a low ranking chief though he was recognized as a son of King Liloa. The people overthrew his higher ranking brother Hākau and placed 'Umi on the throne. In both Kūaliʻi and Umi-a-Liloa's cases, they were regarded as usurpers by some but they solidified their positions through conquest and having high ranking children. Their successes as well as their devotion to the traditional akua legitimatized their lines and seemed to indicate the affection of the akua towards them. In China one had the "Mandate of Heaven". In Hawai'i you had the "Ka pili mahamaha o nā akua a me ka lehulehu" or the Affectonate Relationship of the Gods and the People". No ali'i could justify their rule without this "mahamaha" or affection. That was the way to maintain their mana.

Now fast forward to Kamehameha III. When he began the process of turning Hawai'i into a Constitutional Monarchy, he divided the ali'i into three major categories: royals; stewards or potential royals; and ali'i. Only the members of the Royal Family could be considered "royal" and these had to be confirmed in public decree with the approval of the Kuhina Nui and the House of Nobles. Higher ranking chiefs who had been loyal warriors and advisers to his father were considered to be stewards of the dynasty and as such some of their children were put into the Chief's Children School. The rest of the chiefs were ali'i and the bulk of the people that the king recognized as chiefs derived from kaukau ali'i, middle-lower level chiefs who owed allegiance to the House of Kamehameha. Even during the time of Kamehameha III, having ali'i blood was not a rare thing as the population was collapsing due to foreign diseases. It still is not a rare thing. With the implementation of the Hawaiian Civil Code, ali'i and royals who had children outside of their legally recognized marriages were not entitled to the same benefits as legitimate children. Kamehameha III, V, and Lunalilo all had known illegitimate children. King Kamehameha III had two very well known illegitimate children and the most well known was Albert Kūnuiakea. Though he was legally adopted by Queen Kalama, due to his mother's genealogy and the new legal code, Kamehameha III ensured that his successor would be Alexander Liholiho Kamehameha. Kamehameha III also set into motion a constitutional process that demanded that all ranks be publicly proclaimed during the lifetime of the sovereign and confirmed by the Hawaiian National Assembly in order to avoid civil war between rival heirs. When Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma had their son, Prince Albert Edward Kaleiopapa-a-Kamehameha, his rank had to be confirmed by the Privy Council , the Kuhina Nui, and the House of Nobles even though the son was legally legitimate. Kamehameha V had three very well known daughters from a Hawaiian commoner and one of these women served as a personal attendant of Queen Kapi'olani at the court King Kalākaua. Kamehameha V also stiffened Hawaiian nobility by declaring in 1865 that hereditary privilege in terms of titles and ranks was to be abolished and all ranks, titles and decorations awarded would be returned upon death to the awardee. When Princess Victoria Ka'iulani was born, her rank also had to be confirmed by the organs of state in the same manner as Prince Albert Edward Kaleiopapa-a-Kamehameha even though her mother was proclaimed a princess in 1875. In other words, she did not inherit the title of "princess". She was proclaimed a princess in her own right because hereditary titles and ranks were abolished decades earlier. Under Hawaiian tradition and under Hawaiian constitutional law, succession always depended on several factors. We still have a lot of ali'i descendants alive today, perhaps two out of three Hawaiians have some ali'i blood, but we legally stopped having royals upon the death of Prince Jonah Kūhiō.

The King and Urban Planning in Honolulu

I've been doing research on Honolulu urban planning and that's one of the reasons why I've been looking at the histories of Queen Square, Thomas Square, Queen Kapi'olani Park and other historical sites in Metropolitan Honolulu. Thomas Square was officially the first public park on O'ahu and was declared a national historical site by Kamehameha III. But urban planning was pretty much left to its own devices after Honolulu became the new royal capital in 1845 (or two years after the British take-over) except for some renaming of streets. For example, in 1850, Beretania (the Hawaiian transliteration of "Britania") was renamed to Kamehameha St. Under Kamehameha V, it was renamed Kamehameha III Avenue. He found it to be a matter of poetic justice to rename "Beretania" in honor Kamehameha III who had so much difficulty with the British. Lunalilo upon his elections renamed the street back to Beretania where it has remained known today. 

King Kalākaua upon his election to the throne had dreamed a new Honolulu and one of his ambitions was to break up the ethnic ghettos. He disliked that Americans lived in one district (usually Manoa), the British in another (usually Nu'uanu), the Chinese in another and Hawaiians and everywhere else. The king believed that purely ethnic neighbors--he saw them as "reservations"-- would be dangerous to long term national stability. The Homestead Act that was passed in 1886 allowed to King to use the Crownlands resettle both Hawaiians and indigent Asian populations and essentially allowed him to shift district populations. Chinese It was also around that time that a Parks Commission with John Bush, Archibald Clerghorn, and Robert Stirling was created under the Department of the Interior where Honolulu, Lahaina, Waimea (Kaua'i), and Kailua-Kona would have a series of public city parks and public nurseries where people could buy seedlings from edible plants from all over the world. In addition, the king had planed to remodel Honolulu to look less like Liverpool or San Francisco but more of its own unique Pacific identity. The king had plans to call in architects from the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), Italy, and Japan to help with a new city commission. The king also wanted to introduce replica of the Ha'amonga 'a Maui of Tonga to mark his hope of a Polynesian confederation of nations. 

Unfortunately for Honolulu, the king's ideas were stopped with Bayonet Constitution and with the restrictions of the national budget. In addition, it was clear to the American business community that the King was trying to dramatically re-orient Hawai'i policy-wise and psychologically away from the US and into Asia and Europe. That was probably true. By a 1876 law sponsored by Walter Murray Gibson, the Hawaiian Kingdom was an "Asiatic" and "Oceanic", country that held the "Primacy of the Pacific" (primacy meaning first among equals not supremacy) among Polynesian nations and peoples. By the same law, Hawai'i was duty-bound to help other Asia-Pacific nations retain or regain their independence. The king emphasized this with his world tour in 1881 and upon his return wanted to showcase this national policy starting with its capital. 
The king understood the power that architecture and art had psychologically to a people and his shifting his policies could be dramatically emphasized in buildings and parks. Hale ʻĀkala, the pink Bengali and Moroccan private residence behind the newly built 'Iolani Palace was once such example. 'Iolani Palace itself with its Hawaiian motifs intertwined Italian, Chinese, and Greek architectural elements was another. 

Thomas Square, famous for its connection to "Restoration Day", was also another project of the king. For more than thirty years, the park was neglected until the King appointed a Parks Commission which included John E. Bush and Archibald Cleghorn, father of Princess Ka'iulani, to rejuvenate the park. One of the things that the Parks Commission did was improve the layout of the park (which is where the Union Jack shape of its side walks), bring in water irrigation, build a bandstand, and plant palms and trees mostly from other  countries including from Indonesia as a tribute to the nations that Hawai'i had fraternal ties to. The park was well known for its durian trees planted by Archibald Cleghorn. The park's southern banyan trees are descendants of Princess Ka'iulani's famed banyan tree and may have been planted by the Princess and/or her father in 1887 according to Privay Council Acts 6, 7, 8, and 9 of April 1887. The Department of the Interior would later chastise Cleghorn and others for excessive use of funds. The "Union Jack" shape of the park, the water system, and the banyan trees are the few memories of that time that still remain. 

Even today, when you hear the words "the Hawaiian Kingdom" people normally instantly associate images of 'Iolani Palace, the Kamehameha Statue, etc---all things built under the reign of Kalākaua--in their minds. Emphasizing power and memory are some of the powers that architecture holds But that was also one of the reasons why many in the American business community hated the king so passionately. He threatened the cultural, political, and economic hegemony that the US held over the Hawaiian Kingdom for over half a century with his form of "Iwikauikaua Nationalism":  anti-colonialism; volunteerism, equality among peoples and genders; Hawaiian nationalism and internationalism This was notably expressed in the king's urban planning ideas. 

UN Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories



From the UN Special Committee on Decolonization: A depiction from 1945 showing areas that needed to be decolonized and be enabled towards self-determination. Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands are both shown along with all of Polynesia, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Its a huge mistake to think that non-self-governing territories were simply "colonies". Territories, nations, national groups, and peoples were added to the list of non-self-governing territories by the General Assembly not the colonial or governing power itself nor by the Security Council . Indonesia was already declared itself independent in 1945 and was recognized as such by Japan but due to Dutch aggression to reclaim Indonesia, the General Assembly of the United Nations added Indonesia to its list. In 1945, the general understanding was that any distinct peoples and countries that was detached from its administrating or "metropolitan" power and was being prevented from exercising full self-determination (including by force as the Dutch were doing in Indonesia) or had questionable relations with a distant foreign power (as in the case of Sarawak, which was a recognized independent kingdom but ruled by a British national under a protectorate type relationship) was a non-self-governing territory. That also included Malaysia, Sarawak, and North Borneo (Sabah) which all still had precolonial political structures intact but they all were likewise included on the list of non-self-governing territories.

The Baltic Republics were not added because the Baltic countries still had recognized governments in exile, foreign embassies and formal diplomatic ties with countries throughout their occupation. When the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics annexed the Baltic Republics, most of Europe and Asia--some 70 countries in total--protested annexation and refused to cut political ties--something that did not happen in Hawai'i's case where all of Hawaiian Kingdom's treaties with foreign powers were superseded by US treaties in 1900 sadly due to the international recognition of the Republic of Hawai'i that came as a result of two events: the inauguration of a constitution in 1894 and the Republic's suppression of the 1895 Hawaiian nationalist uprising. It also should be noted that Hawai'i was added as a non-self-governing-territory (NST) not by the US but the United Nations General Aseembly (GA). The GA is the only authority that can add or remove NST and not the United Nations Security Council.  A recent example is the re-enlistment of French Polynesia as a NST by the GA over the objections of France, which has a seat on the Security Council.

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(http://www.un.org/en/decolonization/nonselfgov.shtml)

This is the entire list in 1945: 

Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945-1999)

The following Territories have been subject to United Nations Trusteeship Agreements or were listed by the General Assembly as Non-Self-Governing. Dates show the year of independence or other change in a Territory's status, after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations. 

- Administering States -


Administering Power/ Authority
Territory
Status
Year
Australia
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Change in Status
1984
Papua
Independence as Papua New Guinea
1975
Nauru
Trust Territory
Independence
1968
New Guinea
Trust Territory
Independence as Papua New Guinea
1975
Belgium
Belgian Congo
Independence as Congo Leopoldville, then Zaire
Now Democratic Republic of the Congo
1960
Ruanda-Urundi
Trust Territory
Independence as Burundi
1962
Independence as Rwanda
1962
Denmark
Greenland
Change in Status
1954
France
French Equatorial Africa
Independence as Chad
1960
Independence as Gabon
1960
(Middle Congo)
Independence as Congo (Brazzaville)
Now Republic of the Congo
1960
(Ubangi Shari)
Independence as Central African Republic
1960
French Establishments in India
Change in Status
1947
French Establishments in Oceania
Change in Status
1947
French Guiana
Change in Status
1947
French Somaliland
Independence as Djibouti
1977
French West Africa
Independence as Dahomey
Now Benin
1960
(French Guinea)
Independence as Guinea
1958
(French Sudan)
Independence as Mali
1960
Independence as Ivory Coast
1960
Independence as Mauritania
1960
(Niger Colony)
Independence as Niger
1960
Independence as Senegal
1960
Independence as Upper Volta
Now Burkina-Faso
1960
Guadeloupe and Dependencies
Change in Status
1947
Indo-China
Independence as Cambodia
1953
Independence as Laos
1949
Independence as Viet Nam
1945
Madagascar and Dependencies
Independence as Madagascar
1960
Independence as Comoros
1975
Martinique
Change in Status
1947
Morocco
Independence
1956
New Caledonia 1 and Dependencies
Change in Status
1947
New Hebrides
(Under Anglo-French Condominium)
Independence as Vanuatu
1980
Reunion
Change in Status
1947
St. Pierre and Miquelon
Change in Status
1947
Tunisia
Independence
1956
Cameroons
Trust Territory
Independence as Cameroon
1960
French Togoland
Trust Territory
Independence as Togo
1960
Italy
Somaliland
Trust Territory
Independence as Somalia (joined with British Somaliland)
1960
Netherlands
Netherlands Indies
Independence as Indonesia
1949
Netherlands New Guinea
Joined with Indonesia as Irian Jaya
1963
Netherlands Antilles
Change in Status
1951
Surinam
Change in Status
1951
Independence as Suriname
1975
New Zealand
Cook Islands
Change in Status
1965
Niue Island
Change in Status
1974
Western Samoa
Trust Territory
Independence as Samoa
1962
Portugal
Angola, including the enclave of Cabinda
Independence
1975
Cape Verde Archipelago
Independence as Cape Verde
1975
Goa and Dependencies
Change in Status
1961
Portuguese Guinea
Independence as
Guinea Bissau
1974
Macau and Dependencies
Change in Status
1972
Mozambique
Independence
1975
Sao Joمo Batista de Ajuda
Change in Status
1961
Sao Tome and Principe
Independence
1975
East Timor 2
Independence as Timor Leste
2002
South Africa
South West Africa
General Assembly terminated South Africa’s mandate
1966
Independence as Namibia
1990
Spain
Fernando Póo and Rí Muni
Independence as Equatorial Guinea
1968
Ifni
Change in Status
1969
United Kingdom
Aden Colony and Protectorate
Independence as South Yemen
1967
Bahamas
Independence
1973
Barbados
Independence
1966
Basutoland
Independence as Lesotho
1966
Bechuanaland Protectorate
Independence as Botswana
1966
British Guiana
Independence as Guyana
1966
British Honduras
Independence as Belize
1981
British Somaliland
Independence as Somalia (joined with Italian Somaliland)
1960
Brunei
Independence
Now Brunei Darussalam
1984
Cyprus
Independence
1960
Fiji
Independence
1970
Gambia
Independence as The Gambia
1965
Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony
Independence as Kiribati
1979
Independence as Tuvalu
1978
Gold Coast Colony and Protectorate
Independence as Ghana
1957
Hong Kong
Change in Status
1972
Jamaica
Independence
1962
Kenya
Independence
1963
Leeward Islands
(Antigua)
Independence as Antigua
and Barbuda
1981
(St. Kitts- Nevis-Anguilla)
Independence as St. Kitts and Nevis (separated from Anguilla)
1983
Malayan Union
Independence as Federation of Malaya
Now Malaysia [3]
1957
Malta
Independence
1964
Mauritius
Independence
1968
Nigeria
Independence
1960
North Borneo 3
Change in status
1963
Northern Rhodesia
Independence as Zambia
1964
Nyasaland
Independence as Malawi
1964
Sarawak 3
Change in status
1963
Seychelles
Independence
1976
Sierra Leone
Independence
1961
Singapore 3
Independence
1965
Solomon Islands
Independence
1978
Southern Rhodesia
Independence as Zimbabwe
1980
Swaziland
Independence
1968
Trinidad and Tobago
Independence
1962
Uganda
Independence
1962
Windward Islands
(Dominica)
Independence as Dominica
1978
(Grenada)
Independence as Grenada
1974
(St. Lucia)
Independence as St. Lucia
1979
(St. Vincent)
Independence as St. Vincent and the Grenadines
1979
Zanzibar
Independence 4 as United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Now Republic of Tanzania
1963
Cameroons
Trust Territory
Northern Cameroons joined with Nigeria
1961
Southern Cameroons joined with Cameroon
1961
Togoland
Trust Territory
Joined Gold Coast to form Ghana
1957
Tanganyka
Trust Territory
Independence 3 as United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar after joining
with Zanzibar
Now Republic of Tanzania
1963
United States
Alaska
Change in Status
1959
Hawaii
Change in Status
1959
Panama Canal Zone
Change in Status
1947
Change in Status
1952
Pacific Islands
Trust Territory
Change in Status as Federated Sates of Micronesia
1990
Change in Status as Republic of the Marshall Island
1990
Change in Status as Northern Mariana Islands
1990
Change in Status as Palau
1994

Notes:
1. In 1986 the General Assembly determined that New Caledonia was a Non-Self-Governing Territory.

2. Initially administered by Portugal. Under Indonesian control between 1975 and 1999. East Timor attained independence in May 2002 and joined the United Nations in September 2002 as Timor Leste.

3. In 1963, the Federation of Malaya became Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became independent 1965.

4. Following the ratification in 1964 of Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was formed and later changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania.